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Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill

  • BORN
  • Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
  • Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom
  • November 30, 1874
  • DIED
  • Hyde Park Gate, London, England, United Kingdom
  • January 24, 1965
1874 births; 1965 deaths; 19th-century British writers; 20th-century biographers; 20th-century British writers; 20th-century English historians; 4th Queen's Own Hussars officers; American Odd Fellows; British Army personnel of the Mahdist War; British Army personnel of World War I; British escapees; British Freemasons; British military personnel of the Malakand Frontier War; British Odd Fellows; British prisoners of war; British war correspondents; Burials at St Martin's Church, Bladon; Chancellors of the Duchy of Lancaster; Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom; Chancellors of the University of Bristol; Companions of the Liberation; Congressional Gold Medal recipients; Conservative Party (UK) MPs; Conservative Party Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom; Critics of Islam; Deputy Lieutenants of Kent; English Anglicans; English anti-communists; English biographers; English eugenicists; English people of American descent; English people of Huguenot descent; Fellows of the Royal Society; First Lords of the Admiralty; Foreign recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal (United States); Graduates of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst; Grand Crosses of the Order of the Oak Crown; Honorary air commodores; Knighted couples; Knights of the Garter; Leaders of the Conservative Party (UK); Leaders of the House of Commons; Leaders of the Opposition (United Kingdom); Liberal Party (UK) MPs; Lords Warden of the Cinque Ports; Members of the Order of Merit; Members of the Order of the Companions of Honour; Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for Dundee constituencies; Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for English constituencies; Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom; Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada; Members of Trinity House; Nobel laureates in Literature; People educated at Harrow School; People educated at St. George's School, Ascot; People from Woodstock, Oxfordshire; Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom; Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars officers; Recipients of King Christian X's Liberty Medal; Recipients of the Croix de guerre (Belgium); Recipients of the Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (France); Recipients of the Order of the Star of Nepal; Recipients of the Order of the White Lion; Rectors of the University of Aberdeen; Rectors of the University of Edinburgh; Royal Scots Fusiliers officers; Second Boer War prisoners of war; Secretaries of State for Air (UK); Secretaries of State for the Colonies (UK); Secretaries of State for the Home Department; Secretaries of State for War (UK); South African Light Horse officers; Spencer-Churchill family; Subjects of iconic photographs; UK MPs 1900–06; UK MPs 1906–10; UK MPs 1910; UK MPs 1910–18; UK MPs 1918–22; UK MPs 1924–29; UK MPs 1929–31; UK MPs 1931–35; UK MPs 1935–45; UK MPs 1945–50; UK MPs 1950–51; UK MPs 1951–55; UK MPs 1955–59; UK MPs 1959–64; Victorian writers; Winston Churchill; World War II political leaders

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman, army officer, and writer, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies over the course of his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory during the Second World War. He led the Conservative Party for fifteen years from 1940 to 1955.

Churchill was born into an aristocratic family, the son of an English politician and American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Moving into politics, before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of Asquith's Liberal government. During the war, Churchill departed from government following the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign. He briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as a battalion commander in the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Baldwin's Conservative government of 1924–1929, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy.

Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following Neville Chamberlain's resignation in May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. He led Britain as Prime Minister until after the German surrender in 1945. After the Conservative Party's defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition to the Labour Government. He publicly warned of an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. He was re-elected Prime Minister in the 1951 election. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a serious stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.

Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom. As a writer, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, lifetime body of work. His highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.

SOURCE: Wikipedia


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